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Kunsthistorie 1300-1600

1300-1600    1600-1770    1770-1870    1870-1905    1905-1940    1940-1970    1970-2010


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Kunsthistorie 1300-1600

Ren√¶ssancen betegner perioden i europ√¶isk historie fra ca. 1400 til sidst i 1500-tallet. Ren√¶ssance er fransk og betyder genf√łdsel og refererer til genf√łdslen af de gr√¶ske og romerske ideer fra antikken, is√¶r i Italien. I mange √•r - i den m√łrke Middelalder - var mennesket bundet ind i strenge religi√łse systemer og underordnet Gud, kirke og konge. Ren√¶ssance betyder ogs√• en frig√łrelse af individet.

Basis for denne opblomstring var selvf√łlgelig ogs√• en √łkonomisk og videnskabelig opblomstring. Dog skete - med Den sorte D√łd, pestens h√¶rgen ca. 1348-51, der udryddede 1/3 af Europas befolkning - en √łkonomisk sv√¶kkelse, men med den nye fremvoksende middelklasse blomstrede ogs√• nye ideer.

Nye opfindelser som kompasset, der gjorde nye landvindinger mulige - og bogtrykkerkunsten i midten af 1400-tallet fik afg√łrende betydning for det nye udvidede verdensbillede. Is√¶r Medici-familien i Italien fik stor betydning for kunstens udvikling. I 1400-tallet begyndte s√•ledes en udveksling af ideer og en valfarten til Italien fra Nordeuropa, landene nord for Alperne, for et studium af de klassiske, antikke ideer og ark√¶ologi. Hovedform√•let for kunsten var en efterligning af den ideale, absolutte, smukke natur. Men tilbage i hjemlandene begyndte en transformation af ren√¶ssancen, der med de antikke klassiske ideer om ideal sk√łnhed, ofte tabte det mere humane aspekt.

I det tidlige 1400-tal udvikledes i ren√¶ssancens billedkunst perspektivl√¶ren, der var baseret p√• √©t √łjenpunkt, og l√¶rte kunsterne at skabe dybde p√• en flade udfra matematisk konstruerede principper.

Blandt ren√¶ssancens mange betydelige kunstnere er Brunelleschi, Ghiberti, Donatello, Masaccio, Jan van Eyck, Van der Weyden, Alberti, Piero della Francesca, Bellini, Mantegna, Bramante, Botticelli, Leonardo da Vinci, D√ľrer, Giorgione, Michelangelo, Rafael og Tizian.


Art History 1300-1600

The renaissance constitutes the period in European history from about 1400 to the end of the 1500s.
Renaissance is French and means rebirth and refers to the rebirth of the Greek and Roman ideas from the Antiquity, especially in Italy. For many years in the 'dark' Middle Ages man was forced into rigid religious doctrines and subordinate to God, church and king. Renaissance means a liberation of the individual, too.

Basis for this growth of art was of course an economic and scientific growth. Despite an economic weakening , caused by the 'Black Death', the rage of the plague 1348-51 wiping out 1/3 of the population of Europe, but with the new growing middle class also new ideas were born.

New inventions like the compass giving possibilities to new conquests of land, and the art of printing in the middle of the 14th century got crucial importance for the extended new scheme of things. Especially the Medici-family in Italy had great influence on the development of art. Thus began in the 14th century an exchange of ideas and a pilgrimage to Italy from Northern Europe, the countries north of the Alps, for studies of Antiquity, classic ideas and archaeology.
The main purpose of art was an imitation of the ideal, absolute and beautiful nature. But back in the home countries a transformation of the renaissance began losing the more human aspect.

In the early 14th century in the art history the theory of the perspective was developing, which is based on one point of the eye, teaching the artists to create depth on a surface from mathematically constructed principles.

Among the many significant artists in the Renaissance are Brunelleschi, Ghiberti, Donatello, Masaccio, Jan van Eyck, Van der Weyden, Alberti, Piero della Francesca, Bellini, Mantegna, Bramante, Botticelli, Leonardo da Vinci, D√ľrer, Giorgione, Michelangelo, Raphael and Titian.